Monday, December 3, 2012

Assignment 3 : STELLA Simulation Report

1.0 Introduction                    
            The history of simulation has started quite a long time ago. Yet, the philosophers at time have been arguing about the effectiveness of simulation against conventional theory in educational psychology. According to Perner & Howes (1992), simulation is an old idea in developmental psychology circles which has great importance in Piaget’s psychology. In particular, simulation is known as “role taking” or “perspective taking” in Piaget’s theory which may able to helps young children to overcome their egocentric views. The philosophers have been arguing that, simulation can be used as a great device or method to suggest predictive and explanatory hypotheses, but it cannot be used to justify these hypotheses. Fortunately, simulation theory today has a strong influence on the philosophy of mind debate. Simulation theory suggests that we do not understand others through the use of folk psychological theory. Rather we use our own mental apparatus to form predictions and explanations.
1.1 What is Simulation?
The term simulation is used in different ways by different people. Modeling and simulation are interrelated and both are discipline and method used for developing a level of understanding of the interaction of the parts of system, and of the system as a whole which exists and operates in time and spaces. This method is very suitable to be used in teaching and learning because the level of understanding which is developed when applying this method is achievable to be compared from other method. A system is understood to be an entity which maintains its existence through the interaction of its parts. A model is a simplified representation of the actual system that is used to promote understanding among students. The effectiveness of a model is depend on the extent which it promotes understanding. A good model is always a trade-off as to what level of detail is included in it since all models are simplifications of reality. If either too little or too much details is included in the model will give affections to the level of understanding.
            A simulation generally refers to a computerized version of the model which is run over time and used to study the implications of a defined interaction. One develops a model, simulates it, learns from the simulation, revises the model, and continues the iterations until an adequate level of understanding is developed. Modeling and simulation follows much the same reality. One can learn about riding a bicycle from reading a book, but in order to really learn to ride a bicycle, one must become actively engaged with a bicycle.
            There are many types of simulation that have been created and developed by people. Mostly used by people in many areas or field works is the computer simulation. Computer simulation is the discipline of designing a model of an actual or theoretical physical system, executing the model the model on a digital computer, and analyzing the execution output. This type of simulation is very suitable to be used in teaching and learning process in schools. Simulation embodies the principle of ‘learning by doing’ because in order to learn about the system, one must first build a model of some sort and then operate the models. Computer simulation is the electronic equivalent of this type of role playing and it serves to drive synthetic environments and virtual worlds. Within the overall task of simulation, there are three primary sub-fields which are model design, model execution and model analysis. Fortunately, today there are various model samples that have been designed, so students just have to choose any model sample and simulate it.
            According to Winn & Snyder (1996), the purpose of an educational simulation is to motivate the learner to engage in problem solving, hypothesis testing, experiential learning, schema construction, and development of mental models. An educational simulation is based on an internal model of a real-world system or phemomenon in which some elements have been simplified in order to facilitate learning. The models on which educational simulations are built tend to be of three general types which are continuous, discrete, and logical. Generally, educational simulations are grouped into four categories. Physical simulations allow the learner to manipulate variables in an open-ended scenario and observe the results. Iterative simulations tend to focus on discovery learning by the student with opportunities to conduct scientific research. In a procedural simulations, the students manipulates simulated objects with the goal of mastering the skills required to correctly and accurately manipulate physical objects in a real-world settings. While situational simulations generally model human behavior focusing on attitude of individuals or groups in specific settings.
            Simulations can be used to provide a fertile learning environment for students. The use of simulated activities in education is widely becoming recognized as an important tool in schools. Simulations promote concept of attainment through experiential practice. They are effective at helping students understand the indication of a concept or circumstance. Students are often more deeply involved in simulations than other activities. In science class, the process itself educates the students and can be more appreciated through simulations. Simulation can reinforce other skills indirectly including debating and research skills.
            Learning by simulation can increase student motivation. One way to make concepts meaningful for student is to introduce the topics using simulations. Simulations can help students see things from a different perspective or allow them to feel connected to the topic. Learning by stimulating the models, offer students the opportunity to manipulate content knowledge in an active context that engages a variety of learning styles and offers the opportunity to experience the subject matter in a dynamic way. Simulations motivate students to get involved and do well because the simulation fell like a “real” world situation and because they are interacting directly with their peers. These experiences give students a taste of how professionals confront and resolve problems. Students will get more knowledge and understanding if they experience more. Thus, they will be more motivated and eager to learn and investigate more models or situations.
            Students often use simulations to make predictions about the social, economic, or natural world. Regardless of whether the simulation is based on concrete materials, or a computer program, simulation can be used to make the students predict and enhance their learning. Teacher can give the students a problem to discuss, ask them to make a prediction about the answer, then, simulate data to test their prediction. The students also can be asked to predict what will happen under certain conditions, then, they will test it out. Example condition is what will happen to the shape of the sampling distribution if the sample size is increased. Indirectly, learning with simulations can developed the prediction skills of students.
            Simulation can be valuable aids in student learning because it offers several benefits. Simulations are often cheaper to create than the real life counterparts. Installing a flight simulation software is cheaper than buying a practice jet for each school. Furthermore, they are easier to construct. Simulations also remove the element of danger from the situation. For example, if students want to conduct the prey and predator issues, they can interact with the predator in a simulation quite safely than going to their habitat. In addition, simulations can be paused, whereas real life cannot. Pausing allows more time for students to assess the situation occurs. Simulations are enjoyable and motivating learning aids. Simulations also enhance appreciation of the more subtle aspects of a concept or principles and promote critical thinking among students. The bad side of simulation is just from the aspects of preparation time and assessment is more complex than some traditional teaching methods.
1.2 Simulation in Malaysia’s Education
            Malaysia intends to transform its educational system, in line with and in support of the nation’s drive to fulfill Vision 2020. The Smart Schools initiative is one the programme in order to achieve the government aims to capitalize on the presence of leading-edge technologies. Smart schools need teaching-learning materials designed for the new teaching strategies. Thus, in order to fulfill the need, the modeling and simulation software is used in teaching and learning process in Malaysia’s Smart School. These materials will accommodate students differing needs and abilities, resulting in fuller realization of their capabilities and potential, and allow students to take greater responsibility for managing and directing their own learning. The use of these technology materials is in order to prepare the students for the Information Age as well as produce a technologically literate work force, enhance learning and democratize education.
1.3 STELLA software
            There are various kind of simulation software worldwide. The one that we use in our assignment is the software STELLA® from isee systems ( STELLA® software is an object-oriented programming environment. models can be created by connecting several different icons together in different ways into a model framework so that the structure of the model is very transparent. STELLA® is an extremely easy to use object-oriented modeling environment, is widely used and documented, and there are many pre-made STELLA® model samples available on-line for science education. In addition, STELLA® is intuitive to use and is mathematically rigorous. It is because the interface level provides easy user input, the structural diagram level shows qualitative model structure, the equation level also shows detail of numerical difference equations and time step and numerical solution technique are control by user. The STELLA® software also can be used by students to build their own models or to use and explore physical systems with the pre-made model samples.

2.0 Discussion           
            Teacher guide the students to learn the topic of natural selective pressure using STELLA software. Teacher will explain thoroughly to the students the core model structure of the natural selection to engage their knowledge about the topic. So that, students will understand what are they going to test. The following model structure will be used by teacher.  

            From the core model and the explanation from teacher, students will understand that the simple natural selection that they are going to examine and test involve the rabbits and foxes population. The attribute of the rabbit population that will undergo selective pressure is their average speeds which are their running speeds. Each newly born rabbit carries with them an average speed, which reflects the current average speed of the population. This situation shows that rabbits ‘pass on’ their speed genes to their offspring, adding to the total speed of the population. Average speed per rabbit is calculated by dividing the Total Speed by the number of rabbits in the population.

Normal Graph of average speed per rabbit over years

The above graph shows the normal graph of simple natural selection, whereas the x-axis represents by the years while the y-axis represents the average speed per rabbit. The left box is the parameters used to simulate the software. The parameters can be change by double-clicking on the box. The list of allowable parameters will show on, and we just have to use the appropriate parameters to be investigated.

Effect of change in bias to the average speed per rabbit over years

First, the effect of change in speed bias to the average speed per rabbit over years is investigated. In this part, the change in speed bias is manipulated. Four trials were conducted to get varies graph. The change in speed bias is manipulated with the value of 20, 30, 40, and 50. From the graph, we can see the variation of the graph when we adjusting the value of change in speed bias. The effect to the average speed per rabbit started at year 5 for all graphs. The slope of the graph is increasing with increasing speed in bias.

Effect of the size of the rabbit population to the average speed per rabbit over years

Second, the effect of the size of rabbit population to the average speed per rabbit over years is investigated. In this part, the value for the rabbit population is manipulated. Three trials were conducted to get varies graph. The size of rabbit population is manipulated with the value of 400, 450, and 500. From the graph, we can see the variation of the graph when we adjusting the value of the size of rabbit population. The effect to the average speed per rabbit started at year 5 for all graphs. The slope of the graph is increasing with increasing size of rabbit population.

Effect of the size of the fox population to the average speed per rabbit over years

Lastly, the effect of the size of the fox population to the average speed per rabbit over years is investigated. In this part, the size of the fox population is manipulated. Three trials were conducted to get varies graph. The size of the fox population is manipulated with the value of 24, 25 and 26. From the graph, we can see the variation of the graph when we adjusting the size of the fox population. The effect to the average speed per rabbit started at year 5 for all graphs. The slope of the graph is increasing with increasing size of fox population.

3.0 Conclusion                      
            Based on my readings regarding this topic of simulation in education, I think that the fate of simulations in educational system in Malaysia is good. The future educational system in Malaysia will practice full function of simulation as preparation for the Information Age that is full with advance and modern technologies. Furthermore, learning by using simulations software have been proved by researchers to give many benefits and advantages to students. Thus, there is no hesitation to not use simulations as teaching-learning materials. Students will obviously love to study using simulations. Students are often find active participation in simulations to be more interesting, intrinsically motivating and closer to real-world experiences than other learning modalities (Alessi & Trollip, 2001).
            Simulations learning will be a meaning teaching aids in schools. They can be very flexible in that both student and teacher can have a full control over the simulation variables. These method also allow students to experience phenomena which could be dangerous, expensive or even impossible to observe in the real world. Apart from that, simulations can accommodate a wide range of instructional strategies, including micro-worlds, scientific discovery learning, virtual reality, laboratory simulations, role playing, case-based scenarios and simulation gaming. Simulations are completely-packaged teaching aids to be used in education.
            In conclusion, I am strictly recommended the use of simulations in learning process. They are user-friendly and performed satisfactorily under various input condition. Furthermore, they are packaged with many benefits to both student and teachers. These simulations will help the students understand the concept in more detail. These simulations can be used in conjunction with other teaching aids to enhance student learning in various courses and will provide truly modern environment in which students can study engineering, technology, and science at a level of detail.

4.0 References                      
Hans Kraml (2002). Retrieved on November 30, 2012 from Simulation theory versus theory         theory. University of Innsbruck.
How to teach using data simulations. Retrieved on November 30, 2012 from http://  
Modeling and simulation. Retrieved on November 30, 2012 from  
Natural selection pressure. Retrieved on November 12, 2012 from
Simulation (2012). Retrieved on November 10, 2012 from     Simulation.
Use simulations to help students learn (2011). Retrieved on November 10, 2012 from http://  
What is simulation software. Retrieved on November 30, 2012 from
What is simulation. Retrieved on November 14, 2012 from            Introduction/Simulation/
What is stella. Retrieved on November 30, 2012 from            introgeo/mathstatmodels/UsingStellaII.html

STELLA software

Tuesday, November 20, 2012

Assignment 2 Report Smart School




The Malaysia Smart School is a learning institution that has been systemically reinvented in terms of a teaching-learning practices and school management in order to prepare children for the Information Age. As we know, our country needs to make critical transformation like Japan that use 100% technology in education. The progress of Smart School made so far is the schooling culture has been change from one that is memory-based to one that is informed, thinking, creative and caring through leading-edge technology. In the pilot, the Smart School Integrated Solution (SSIS) was rolled out to 87 schools in the country at the cost of about RM 300 million. The Smart School is implemented by the Ministry of Education (MoE), Malaysia. Then, there are four waves of the Smart School implementation plan are wave 1 from 1999 to 2002, the implementation on 87 schools, wave 2 from 2002 to 2005, lessons learnt from the pilot, wave 3 from 2005 to 2010, extending the digital transformation to all and wave 4 from 2010 to 2020, technology becomes an integral part of the nation’s learning process.

            Firstly, from 1999 to 2002, the 87 pilots schools were identified to act as the nucleus for the eventual roll-out of Smart Schools concepts, materials, skills and technologies. As stated in the Smart School Conceptual Blueprint, the Smart School concept is a work in progress and remains open to evolutionary refinement, including advances in pedagogy and improvements in information technology. To date 2005, there have been several enhancement efforts by various parties to expand the role of ICT in Malaysian schools. There are mainly the ICT-enabled teaching of Science and Mathematics in English (PPSMI), the government’s school computerization project aimed at equipping all schools with PC’s and a computer lab. As with the PPSMI, the SSIS must make the transition to English for Science and Mathematics teaching. As the PPSMI produces teaching courseware and the SSIS produces learning courseware, a combination of the two will strengthen teaching-learning in the classroom.

            Then, from 2002 until 2005, in order to implement ICT-integrated teaching more effectively and to obtain all stakeholders’ support to the nationwide implementation of the Smart Schools. After that, The Smart Schools Management System (SSMS) holds the promise of a total, comprehensive and complete approach to learning. Measures to improve the SSMS and schools’ transition to a knowledge culture will be facilitated strongly. While improving the user-friendly aspect of the SSMS, steps will also be taken to integrate parallel efforts such as the PPSMI, the school computerization program and the School-Net project. 

            Besides, timeline from 2005 until 2020, following the Pilot Project in 1999 until 2002, the MoE has developed a visionary plan for the roll out the Smart School during 2006 until 2010. The plan to “make all schools smart by 2010” will leverage on all the initiatives MoE has undertaken prior to and since 1999, as well as future initiatives. Thus, by 2010, the target is to have 10,000 Smart Schools in Malaysia. Hence, each of the 10,000 schools turning smart in 2010 will have many facilities, such as wireless, notebooks for all teachers (for subjects of Science and Mathematics in English) and broadband access. Moreover, under this period, teachers will undergo a programmed of Continuous Professional Development (CPD) as they will be continuously trained to enhance the teachers’ competency in integrating ICT in teaching and learning. Training of teachers by 2010 will cover educational TV, smart teaching learning and a module on integrating the ICT initiatives in a lesson.

            A long-term implementation plan for the period 2005-2020 will set performance targets that will have to be met by the major players. The plan would have to get the approval and full backing of the government in terms of its commitments to the goals of the Smart Schools. Having relevant policies in place is an important factor to enhance implementation. Support will also be provided in terms of making available the necessary human, financial and physical resources required by the initiatives. In other hand, other government agencies, such as the Ministry of National and Rural Development, Tenaga Nasional Berhad can play significant roles, especially in providing for the needs of rural areas. This will have a positive impact on the Smart School.


            Malaysia is fast moving towards becoming a united and fully developed nation by the year 2020. Towards this end, Malaysia need to strategize and take step to ensure that the nation will achieve its goals. However, Malaysia need to be innovative to venture into new fields and focus on new emphasis in order to be able to compete with other developed nations. Extra efforts must be taken to face new challenges ahead in this era. Challenges which the nation need to face are mostly from globalization and liberalization as well as from the rapid development of information and communication technology. The great challenge Malaysia is facing at the moment is to extend the concept of smart learning to all schools (there are about 8000 primary schools and 3000 secondary schools). With the rise of K-economy, the new economic challenges and the knowledge-based workforce, Malaysia needs to manage its education system in a more creative and innovative manner. 

 Firstly, teachers are now faced with the challenge of dealing with a learning environment, which is borderless, offers multi-modal learning pathways, and resource rich. The implies that the teacher needs to understand how an ICT-based learning environment as intended by the Smart School education concept affects the student’s training and learning.  Teachers also need more training on ICT programs than the students. It’s important to ensure teachers capability to deliver their curriculum and so that all teachers can contribute towards achieving the nation’s educational direction and goals together. Thus, a great need to train and retrain teachers to the new concept of teaching-learning. Teaching should be student-centered whereby learners are allowed to access knowledge at their own pace. Teachers should be innovative and use the internet as an important resource.

In addition, limitation of infrastructure, such as computer labs and continuous limitations to access the network hamper the effectiveness of technology supported teaching and learning. So, the extension of the smart school concept; Teaching–learning processes should be run. It helps the students learn effectively and efficiently. It also enable students to self-accessed and self-directed learning. It also cognitively, attractive, motivates and encourage students to learn and active participation. Moreover, combinations of network-based, teacher based and course-ware materials will become more attractive.

Next, students nowadays are passive. It is also one of the challenges that we faced today. They hope everything from their teacher. Although the teacher is mainly responsible for what takes in the learning environment, the students should also play an active role in determining the direction of their learning by virtue of their participation and activities. Apart from that, majority of the parents are not involved in this project. Most of them busy with their work so that can upgrade their life. In their opinion, this programmers is the work for government. Thus, they do not care about it.

Then, schools are supposed to have enough technical expertise or technology coordinator to maintain the ICT infrastructure. Besides that, they also responsible for supporting teachers in the overall deployment of multimedia and other technologies in the delivery of Smart School teaching. It is because, sometimes the old teacher do not know how to used the computer. So, we need technical expertise to help and guide teachers in delivering effective technology supported instruction. Apart from that, the technology coordinator will also supervise maintenance of all technical equipment and liaise with the school technical support staff team for equipment repair, replacement and facility upgrading as and when necessary.

After that, the problem of face breakdown of electricity supply also should be considered. Thus, the authorities should play their roles in improving the management of smart school. The constant breakdown of electricity supply especially in the rural schools. This is due to the inability of the existing system in schools to cope with increase usage of electricity. For an example, Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) has already held the powetron electricity generation project to overcome the problem of Sabah’s electricity supply shortage.


The Smart School initiatives has five main goals which focus on the need to develop a skilled work force for the Information Age and to promote goals of the National Philosophy of Education which is produce thinking and technology-literate workforce, democratize education, increase participation of stakeholders, provide all-around development of the individual and provide opportunities to enhance individual strengths and abilities. All this should be achieved to make sure the Smart School in Malaysia is the best around the world.

All around development of individual include intellectual, physical, emotional and spiritual. This element of individual development is important for student to achieve their goals in the future. As a student, they should know their needs for the balance development in their life. Strategies that can be taken are provided a broad curriculum for all students and teach values and language across the curriculum. By the way, students are able to active with their curriculum activities such as club and sports. This provide student to achieve the first goals of Smart School which is all around development of individuals. Next is emphasized thinking skills. Thinking skills is about the way student should think to resolve the problem. Student should be creative and think widely across their mind. At the end, they can generate a new idea or theory for future development of our country.

            Besides, provision to develop individual strengths and abilities. Individual strengths and abilities are very important towards student because they have many obstacles that should be faced to success in their study. Provide elective in the curriculum and allow for vertical integration (virtual express class) can though the student to face the reality nowadays. They should alert with the environment and try to adapt with the surrounding. Brilliant student should know their strengths and abilities to make sure their weakness can be cover and try to develop a new skill to protect their original strengths and abilities. Teachers are ready to guide and help is necessary for students to develop their own strengths and abilities.

Next, produce a thinking and technology-literate workforce. An integrated set of strategies will be employed to achieve this goals are teach thinking across the curriculum and apply technology in teaching and learning. Application of technology in teaching and learning is the best way to implement student to approach this goal because students are able to communicate with the world and positively can bring something new to Malaysia specifically. Malaysia need someone that can think widely and know about technology nowadays because in these era, world is using technology and this is the right position of our country to be and posited beside the best country in the world such as Japan and United State. Malaysia can compete with the others country if this issues is taking seriously by our government to successfully develop The Malaysia Smart School.

After that, democratize education also the goal of The Malaysia Smart School. An integrated set of strategies will be employed to achieve this goals are provide equal access to learning opportunities and provide for differing abilities, styles and paces of learning. Different people have different style of study. So, as a good teacher they should know and try to make a new thing and variation their style of teaching to make sure student are not boring with them. Student also a teenagers and they are attracted with the new thing especially about technology. The school environment is important because teacher should know and play their role to attract student during teaching process with the school environment. As a student, they also know their part and try to fulfill their own hope and if the education provided is suitable, they can go through and the goal of Smart School is achieved.

Last but not least is increasing participation of stakeholders. There are some strategies to fulfill the last goals of The Malaysia Smart School which is create awareness of what happens in schools, enable easy and speedy communication with the school using technology and provide opportunities for stakeholders to participate. We should take an action before anything bad is happen in the future. Prevention is better than cure. It is the best word can be said to show that we should awareness of what happens in schools. To success this goals, we should easy and speedy communication with the school using technology. Parents and community can easily get the information about their children and schools. This is the best way for parents to know about the curriculum and academic achievement of their children.

The school management should provide opportunities for stakeholders such as parents and community to participate. This can increase participation of stakeholders if the opportunities provided to the stakeholders are successfully full by the school management. The relationship between community and the school is closer and fulfill the objective of The Malaysia Smart School. All this goals should be achieved to make sure the Smart School in Malaysia is the best around the world.

The successful of Smart School is not depends on the planning of the project, but the responsibility of stakeholders in many aspect that taking care across the Smart School programmed. The stakeholders can deliver services with ease and facilitate processes, they need to identify common goals that alike Smart objective. One of the main goals in Smart School is to increase participation of stakeholders. In other word, all citizens have responsibility in increasing the level of national education in the world view.

The government has provide much money to set up teaching and learning facilities especially teaching aid like desktop, laptop, projector, internet connection, hardware and education software. Smart School also provides opportunities to enhance individual strength and abilities. Every assessment or work given is point to this objective. Some of them might be given through online. So, teachers, students and parents should be able to access on-line assessment items. This smart school assessment will be flexible and learner friendly, while assuring the quality of the assessment information by using multiple approaches and instruments. This is important to make sure the students also can undergo their learning at anywhere, anytime and anyone can help them.

The teacher is an important component in the teaching and learning situation. His or her knowledge, skills and attitude are equipments in creating the best conditions for their students learning. What we can say here is, the teacher is an important factor that can determine and influence the future of young people than do the members of other professions. So, we can consider that teachers play an important role to provide education and other moral good human behaviors to students.

Good and creative teacher is a person who can designed their own creative teaching methods and play with emotions, factual data and moral values broaden the learning experience and make it more relevant to everyday life situations. If the role of a teacher is to teach, the role of a student must be to learn. However, it has been agreed that learning is not only an exercise in reading and reciting facts, but in gaining a deeper insight of events and situations. Through the use of drama and dramatic conventions a teacher does not only teach and learn the materials but also the why and how the materials do.

Smart School teachers need to learn to facilitate and encourage students in taking charge of their own learning. Teachers will continue to be the students mentor. Each student will have one or several virtual mentors who can be accessed anytime they want like in class and through the online. These mentors will monitor the online activities of their area, offering advice, suggestions and feedback. Such mentors will also report any significant happening in the child’s learning to the parents, teachers and any other interested stakeholders. The teachers not only teaching, but their work includes as a mentor, manager and reporter. They are mapping of performance goals with student activities, offering real-time course corrections, replacing evaluation through periodic tests. Each transformation that teacher make in the class will continuously until the objective of Smart School achieve.

The changing from normal school to smart school will need changing the culture of school, moving away from classic memory-based learning. It give a chance for students to thinking, be creative, and caring in all students. So, the students need more exercise on each topic and have responsibility on their own education and their future. It is because Smart School gives opportunity to students to decide their way but still under teacher attention. Here, the students can explore the knowledge with their own creativity.

The ways of the student works play the major role to determine the successful of Smart School. The students should participate actively in all teaching and learning process. If the students become passive in class, the expansion of knowledge and transferring knowledge is not occurring perfectly. The students mind set to achieve glory in their education must set in the early age. They must work harder and not depend on someone to explore something new in their life.

In the smart learning scenario, students will make extensive use of facilities that can help them learn in the school as well as away from it. They must know that the facilitator or teachers is useful for them in each learning activities. The students also must courage to work in distributed, collaborative groups, playing a more proactive role in the teaching-learning process. It is for their future life especially in their work time. Learning will eventually become student-centric, with the students becoming experts in managing the learning environment. The power of controlling is given to them by the teacher because the teacher has become as facilitators who only giving help and clues for them to make an exploration of knowledge easier.

When parents are involved in their children's education, both children and parents are likely to benefit. Parents can play the major role in helping Smart School provide individualized education for students. Research has shown that students do better when their parents are involved. Researchers reports that parents participation in their children's schooling frequently enhances children's self-esteem, improves children's academic achievement, improves parent-child relationships, helps parents develop positive attitudes towards school and a better understanding of the schooling process.

Despite these advantages, it is not always easy for parents to find time and energy to become involved or to arrange their time with schedules for school events. Some of them might sense as an uncomfortable experience and have their hands full with a job and other children. Recently, teachers and other school staff have made special efforts to increase communication with parents and encourage involvement in children's learning experiences via technology progress by the government.

Parents are welcome in school like to involve in teaching-learning, participating in developing of educational materials and planning the assessment for their children. Parental involvement can be seen to fall into three types, behavioral, intellectual and personal. Actively participating parents help their children in their academic development by going to schools and participating or supporting school programs. The caring parents can also motivate teachers to become more careful in dealing with particular student. It is also give opportunity for parents and teachers to take care more on the students.

Time that has spends by the parents in the school is a very quality time. Parents should give some time in this field because their children are in the transforming time to the more matured in life. But, parents must be widely acknowledge and accepted, in order to create significant buy-in for parents to assume a much stronger role in the Smart School education process. This process is not at school only, but also at home. The parents also must monitoring their children progress, become a guider who are motivating and counseling children in each time.

The understanding parents are need in planning and working of Smart School. Even teachers can supervise their children, parents are should not giving fully responsibility to the teachers only because parents also have their own responsibility on their child. While it is possible for a teacher to implement such a parent involvement program alone, it is much easier if the school and the whole is committed to the Smart School program. Administrative staff can relieve some of the burden of implementing a comprehensive parent involvement program, and can offer help and support to teachers.

The effectiveness of teaching and learning is depending on the skill and knowledge of the teachers. This aspect is the major factor that can determine the successful of a smart school before taking other factor. The skill is the ability of someone to do something and the knowledge in this view is the information that the teachers have. The continuous professional development of teacher in their knowledge and skills will benefit their students.

The important things of teacher duty are to prepare students for the Information Age. There are a few strategies that the teachers must take care. Firstly, they must provide all round developments with provision for individual abilities, offering a broad curriculum for all, with electives, that is vertically integrated, multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary. To provide all this kind of behaviors, the teachers must provide all this with them before can teach others. The skill that the teachers need is the psychology skills to influence the students. To understand the teenagers behavior, the educators must study the teenagers development theory. From that, teacher might use soft skill to bring and guide the students on a right way.

The second perfect strategy is emphasized intellectual, emotional, spiritual, and physical growth, concentrating on thinking, developing and applying values, and using correct language across the curriculum. Teachers who work in Smart School must encourage their students to have good critical thinking. Despite giving much knowledge to their students, they also must know how to understand each learned by their self. In developing students mind set, the teachers also can applying good moral values in each aspect of learning due to the government principle to provide integral human for nation in the future. In this millennium era, the teenagers had confused with their identity especially in their acting and language. They had influence with the west culture. The major thing that we can see is mixing language. Malaysian will lose their identity if the younger do not appreciate what they have. All this kind of acting can be change by the teachers, they should use appropriate language in class. It is important to foster the teenagers to use correct language, but some term in some language need word or sentence in others language to explain it. So, it can be excuse.

The Smart School had been developed in such powerful and had big impact of their curriculum. The smart school curriculums are meaningful, socially responsible, multicultural, reflective, holistic, global, open ended, goal-based and technologically. The educator must know each kind of Malaysian culture in a large aspect. So, the curriculum itself shall promote holistic learning and allowing children to progress at their own paces.

The institution that provide teachers must produce teachers with technology literate that can think critically, encouraging thought and creativity across the curriculum and applying technology effectively in teaching and learning. Before entering any class, teachers are responsible to know and study about the issue that will discuss with their students. It is involve how to use a computer, projector, microphone, speaker, scanner or other equipments that can be use in the class. Have a creative ways of delivering will make a good attractions to the students to focus to the teacher in each second of learning time. Although the teacher has ability to use the digital media in their class, they also must know how to manage the instrument correctly like maintain the ability of the instruments.

The other skill, knows how to be democratize in learning. They must offering equal access to learning opportunity and accommodating differing learning abilities, styles and paces. Its mean, they must manage each step they take in class to make sure the facilities provide is enough for every students. It also to prevent buyers for some student especially the passive students and minority races.

Our education system had go several revolution in making a world class of education system. The expansion of Malaysia Education must follow the recent world expansion especially the expansion of latest technology. Introduction to technology in education field like Smart School is one of the steps to achieve National Vision and increasing the value of national education. To achieve this kind of golden goals, all participants are responsible to create thus education vision successful. If these visions are successful, it will give benefit to Malaysia totally. Finally, developing national education is not only government or Ministry of Education responsibility, but all Malaysian are involved in bringing national education through excellent.

            The idea of Smart Schools is dedicated to the task of regaining excellence in Malaysia education. It restructures Malaysian education as evidenced by changing the teaching and learning environments in schools in order to prepare children for the Information Age. There are several components in the Malaysian Smart School. One of the components in the teaching-learning processes which are the core of the Smart School. The processes relating to curriculum, pedagogy, assessments, and teaching-learning materials, are reinvented to help students learn more effectively and efficiently. The school enable students to practice self-accessed and self-directed learning at their own learning pace.

3.1       Curriculum
            Every school have their own curriculum objectives include the Smart School curriculum. The main objective is to promote holistic learning. The curriculum of the Smart School emphasizes seven learning areas. They are language and communication, science and technology, social studies, physical and health development, vocational and personal awareness, practical and creative arts, and values development. Learning areas represent a very important concept in the Smart Schools. They are designed to help students achieve overall and balanced development with which the goals are aligned. In Smart Schools subjects no longer stand alone. In each learning areas, subjects are taught through various perspectives of knowledge, skills, values, and language. Each subject is divided into several levels for students with different learning abilities. Therefore, students may learn at to their own pace.

3.2       Pedagogy
            Pedagogy is also the component of teaching-learning in the Smart School which make the learning more interesting, motivating, stimulating, and meaningful. It is because pedagogy involves the student’s minds, spirit, and bodies in the learning process to prepare them for greater challenges in future. The process in the Smart School pedagogy involves specific method like student-centered learning. This innovative and effective method is used to provide different learning experience for the student. For instance, the possible role of students and teacher in classroom is range from teacher-centered to student-centered. Pedagogy has its own learning strategies by mix of appropriate learning to ensure mastery of basic competencies and promotion holistic development. It also accommodates individual different learning style to develop great performance. Besides, pedagogy shall foster a classroom atmosphere that is compatible with different teaching-learning strategies.

3.3       Assessment
            The other component of the Smart School is assessment which is distinctly different from other schools. It is element-based, criterion-referenced, and diagnostic. The system is developed so as to measure student achievement in cognitive development, communication, social-emotional development, and science and technology. This assessment will be flexible and learner-friendly, while assuring the quality of the assessment information by using multiple approaches and instruments. The integration of technology as a tool enables the on-line assessment and conducted in various form to perform strength, abilitie, and knowledge. This assessments also can be open to continued improvement on a lifetime. Authentic, alternative, and performance are examples of assessment approaches, while anecdotal records, calendar records, checklists, work samples, and exhibitions are some examples of assessment instruments. Certification serves as a learning record and is subject to life-long updating.

3.4       Teaching-Learning Materials (TLMs)
            The last component is the teaching-learning material that is designed for the new teaching strategies. Smart School teacher must be able to use ICT application as a tool in teaching and learning process and also consider the students learning preferences in order to maximize their learning potential. The teaching-learning materials in Smart School to be compared with the ordinary schools are cognitively challenging and motivating by combining the best of network-based, teacher-based, and courseware materials.


Technology infrastructure shall form the basis of the Smart School upon which all of the applications shall reside and operate. Although the Smart School is curriculum driven, technology nevertheless plays a crucial role as a prime enabler and one of the critical success factors for the Smart School.  The Technology Infrastructure for the pioneer Smart Schools may comprise some or all of the following components like hardware such as end terminal devices and servers, software such as operating system, graphical user interface, and IT security software. Besides that, Local Area Network (LAN) components, such as network interfaces, network operating system, network system management, physical cabling, hubs, routers and access equipment. In addition, video conferencing and its related components, Non-IT Support Equipment such as overhead projectors and audiovisual equipment. The Technology Infrastructure shall be able to support, fulfill and integrate the Smart School. Its design shall take into account the migration of hardware and software applications from one level of technology to another. Levels of Technology are made necessary by differing readiness of infrastructure and
budget restrictions. 

Unfortunately, there have been disputes as to whether Smart Schools are associated with information technology (IT), and that smart teaching and learning can be implemented with or without IT. Gan (2000, p.81) maintains that, on the basis of the conceptual definition for Smart Schools that rests on the premise to educate Malaysian children for and with the tools of Information Age, “Smart Schools without IT will definitely not be able to produce generation of IT-literate Malaysian[s] ready for the challenges of the Information Age”. Furthermore, it has been persuasively argued that, “The journey of the Smart School project might otherwise be a long and gradual one, but we can now use technology to take us there quickly and efficiently” (SSPT, 1997a, p.37). The corollary that stems from such argument is that science teaching and student learning can be made more efficient and enabling with the use of technology.

The blueprint gives examples of IT-enriched teaching and learning practices and their implications for IT. For instance, in self-exploratory learning, the implication would be, “every computer shall have access to the latest educational materials available locally, as well as to external resources” (ibid., p. 102). Nevertheless, the blueprint suffers from a lack of specific examples as to how technology could be used as enablers in science classes. This void is only partially filled when one refers to the science syllabuses that provide one or two-sentence descriptions on the suggested IT-enabled science teaching approaches such as the use of simulation, modeling, and computer-assisted experimentation to teach certain concepts.

In conclusion, the Malaysian government has made an ambitious and bold initiative and has laid the foundation for our school children, the future citizens, to progress towards achieving Vision 2020. It is now up the various stakeholders to play their part and ensure that the path towards achieving the goals is obstacle-free.